In this section you will find some information on how to practice first aid to relieve the pain of certain pathologies. These indications do not replace professional treatment that only the doctor is able to perform.
Popularly called "heel inflammation"
The heel spur is a small bone point that develops in the antero-lower part of the heel due to the continuous tractions that the plantar fascia exerts on it (the plantar fascia is a robust structure of fibrous tissue that maintains the arch shape of the sole of the foot. It is not the tip of the bone that disturbs because it develops only as a consequence of the continuous traction of the plantar fascia on the heel, which becomes inflamed and produces pain that can also be very intense when walking and which can get in the way of running.
You feel a painful toe in the middle of the heel that is accentuated when walking, it gets even worse running and some shoes are better than others.
The muscles of the leg and foot must be very strong because the forces that are released during the landing of the foot during the race are truly impressive! In fact, the weight that is unloaded on the landing foot receives a force that can reach three times the body weight. The plantar fascia has the function of maintaining the concavity of the sole of the foot and resisting the forces that would cause the foot to collapse under the weight and efforts of the human body. To be able to do this, the band attaches with a robust insertion to the lower part of the heel, while on the other side it goes to insert on the metatarsal heads.
The exercises in which eccentric work is developed (in other words the exercises in which the muscle is gradually stretched), are important because they strengthen the foot and leg muscles and also stretch the plantar fascia and Achilles tendon, thus helping them during one of their main functions: that in which they are stretched and must support the load of the whole body.
Walk on the toe of one foot while the other foot is dorsiflexed.
You must remain barefoot on your toes (taking a stable and balanced position and then start walking in very small steps (no more than 20 cm per step) looking forward and maintaining an upright position. The ankle and toes swinging that is taking the step forward must be flexed dorsally to the maximum possible degree, always keeping the balance on the other foot.It will be necessary to repeat a path of 20 meters three times, spacing each path with a short rest period.
This exercise also develops a sense of balance which is very useful in athletes.
Walk with your toes.
It is easier to learn the exercise while sitting on a chair. Keeping your feet flat on a smooth floor, you should flex your toes as if you were taking something off the floor. Once you have learned this simple movement, you must stand erect with your feet at a distance of twenty centimeters. You must repeat the movement previously seen trying to advance the foot on which the foot rests by dragging the foot on the floor using the force of the fingers that flex.
50 repetitions per foot (right, left, right, etc.) must be performed for a length of a couple of meters three times, interspersing a short rest period between one repetition and the next.
This exercise develops the strength, coordination and flexibility of the flexor muscles of the fingers, thus helping the plantar fascia to better support the weight of the body.
The previous exercises can be preceded by this simple fascial stretching technique: you have to keep a small can, like fruit juice, in the freezer and before starting the exercises described above you have to roll under the foot for about ten minutes. The coldness of the can reduces pain, while the rolling action produces a gentle stretching on the plantar fascia which in plantar fasciitis is always very retracted.
This fascial stretching can be repeated not only before the exercise sessions, even a dozen times a day to obtain maximum foot analgesia.
The patient must sit with the sick foot supported by the other knee. The foot must be slightly dorsal flexed. The metatarsal is taken with one hand, blocking the toes slightly extending, the heel is immobilized with the other. At this point one should try to flex the toes, with slight force, as if the curvature of the foot should be increased against the resistance of the hand. The flexion effort of the fingers must be done by inspiring air in the lungs and must last 20 ". Then exhale, relax the tension of the muscles of the foot for about 30 ”; the same sequence is repeated five times once or twice a day.
It is very important that the heel of the shoe is raised by at least 1 cm to allow the plantar fascia to be released when it has to support the weight of the body. Also useful is the classic silicone heel for sale in all sanitary ware.
Low-heeled shoes (e.g. boat shoes) are the worst you can wear, better than the leather shoes on which you can easily have 0.5 - 1 cm applied under the heel sole by any shoemaker